Microalgae are sunlight powered single-cell factories producing valuable protein, lipids, carbohydrates, pigments, vitamins and minerals, etc. They have long been used as health food supplements and ingredients for other products for human and animal uses. Microalgae also prove to be beneficial to the environment through bioremediation of flue gases and wastewater as well as soil fertility. The recent renewable energy boom re-ignited unprecedented interest in microalgal biofuels, biodiesel in particular. Furthermore, microalgae have emerged as promising hosts for the expression of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, commercial application of microalgae is faced with tremendous challenges in many different ways. Scientific breakthroughs and engineering innovations are sought in commercial implementation of microalgae based technologies. Algal Biomass Bio-economy, a new open access, peer-reviewed and refereed multidisciplinary journal, publishes original research work in the fundamental understanding and rapidly expanding field of commercial applications of microalgae ranging from microalgae biology and molecular biology to mass cultivation, harvesting, dewatering, extraction, bioproducts development, and bio-economy with the ultimate aim to open up new markets for bioproducts and biofuels based on algal biomass. The first special issue invites contributions in the form of original research papers, critical reviews, case studies, letters, short communication, opinions, commentaries and essays on microalgae–based organic compounds degradation, dedicated to both the understanding of the fundamentals and development of industry-oriented technologies.